Ⅰ。The following paragraphs are taken from the textbooks, followed by a list of words or expressions marked A to X。 Choose the one that best completes each of the sentences and write the corresponding letter on your answer sheet。 One word or expression for each blank only。 (0。5 point each, 12 points)
·We are going the wrong way 1 all this. Everyone must draw 2 .This isn’t the last draw we shall have , and 3 to yourselves what it will be 4 in this cell if we have a 5 class—the ones who are left to the 6 . The rest of you will soon begin to hate us.
·But the press isn’t the only party in this country that’s 7 of this rampant insensitivity。 When I went to the chairman of the board of a large New York 8 firm and asked him for money to help us get 9 of the testimony to 10 to each member of Congress so that we can press our demands for open 11 , I was told in seriousness : “I don’t think you can market war 12 。”
·Most of the information we use now is 13 free from trade 14 and some government organizations, and there is no 15 of knowing anymore whether the information 16 which we base our own information 17 distribution is true or 18 。
·Operationally excellent companies 19 a combination of quality, price, and ease of purchase that no one else 20 their market can 21 .They are not product or service innovators, 22 do they 23 one-to-one relationships with customers. They execute extraordinarily well, and their proposition to customers is 24 low price or hassle-free service, or both.
A. obtainedB. crimesC. deliverD. associationsE. about
F。 onG。 basedH。 matchI。 norJ。 lots
K. wayL. presentM. cultivateN. pictureO. like
P. endQ. transcriptsR. in S. privilegedT. guilty
U. guaranteedV. hearingsW. forX. false
Ⅱ.There are 15 sentences with a blank in each, followed by a list of words or expressions marked A to X. Choose the one that best completes each of the sentences and write the corresponding letter on your answer sheet. One word or expression for each blank only. (1 point each, 15 points)
25.“Oh, no!”he said quickly, smiling at her out of that unfailing of contrition — a sort of chivalry.
26.At last, with the Vietnam War, Americans are beginning to realize that they are
original sin as much as Europeans are.
27。The value of snobbery in general, its humanistic “point”, consists in its power to
28.It is not altogether easy to decide what is the of the love of excitement.
29。The American dream promised older people that if they worked hard enough all their lives, things would well for them。
30.I believe that over a period of decades newspapers have become a habit a function.
31.Her time was , but she continued to sit by the window, leaning her head against the window curtain, inhaling the odour of dusty cretonne.
32.They are always on trial, always on the of failure, collectively and individually.
33.He ends it by to end his life — with a guillotine.
34.In one of the world’s biggest countries, euthanasia is condemned by the medical establishment, secretly practiced many times more often, and almost never .
35.She to me because she was like people I had never met personally.
36.Once in bed, most folks I know seem to find to difficulty in plunging their earthly parts into .
37.We watched while pride allowed unimportant battles to be the most important stands of the war.
38.Women are on other things than their faces.
39.The letter you received last month was sent after we over two thousand third-year students at the best schools.
A. appealedB. running outC. stimulateD. verge
E. excite F. oblivionG. ridgeH. comes to light
I. insteadJ. screenedK. escalated intoL. running over
M. comes into beingN. root causeO. rather thanP. subject to
Q. turn upR. retrenchingS. increasedT. retaining
U. turn outV. pretendingW. reasonX. impulse
Ⅲ.Each of the following sentences is given two choices of words or expressions. Choose the right one to complete the sentence. (1 point each, 15 points)
40.The burn needs a (an) ([A] application, [B] treatment) of ointment three times a day, or it will get infected.
41.Porters laden with heavy bags were now ([A] walking, [B] Working) their way slowly across a rope bridge.
42。The ([A] studied, [B] learned) casualness of the stranger’s manner put us on guard immediately。
43。This pretty girl seems to have plenty of confidence, but appearances are sometimes ([A] deceptive, [B] deceitful)。
44.To get ([A] permitted, [B] admitted) to the university, a student must have good results from the junior college.
45.Some plants are very ([A] sensible, [B] sensitive) to light; they prefer the shade.
46. The TV announcer apologized for the breakdown and said that normal service would be ([A] resumed, [B] returned) as soon as possible.
47.If you accept the offer, please ([A] confirm, [B] Affirm) it in writing.
48.My brother is ([A] credible, [B] credulous) enough to believe anything you tell him.
49.Why do you make such a loud noise in the dead of night? You are so ([A] inconsiderable, [B] inconsiderate).
50。As Managing Director of the firm, Mr。 Smith is the ([A] dominant, [B] dominated) figure in the eyes of the staff。
51。You must ([A] explore, [B] execute) all the possibilities before giving up hope。
52. His factory ([A] yielded, [B] manufactured) big profits last year.
53。Conservationists call upon all citizens to protect natural resources which are not ([A] inexhaustible, [B] inexorable)。
54。A small country without a good defense is ([A] vulnerable, [B] venerable) to outside invasion。
Ⅳ.Translate the following into English and write your translation on your answer sheet. (55- 59 2 points each, 8 points for 60, 18 points)
Read the following passage carefully and complete the succeeding four items:Ⅴ, Ⅵ, Ⅶ and Ⅷ。
The Birth of Computing:
The Forgotten Father Figure
1) It seems curious that Charles Babbage is remembered today as the grandfather of computing, for Babbage never completed a single one of his clunky mechanical calculating machines, and his work was largely forgotten after his death in 1871. It was only with the construction of the first electronic computers in the 1940s, by people who were unaware of Babbage’s work, that the groundbreaking nature of that work became apparent. Had Babbage never lived, in other words, the rise of the computer would have happened anyway. That is because today’s computers owe their ancestry not to Babbage but to the work of another 19th-century pioneer, Hermann Hollerith.
2) In contrast to Babbage, who wanted to automate the business of mathematical calculation, Hollerith was interested the field of date processing. Babbage intended his elaborate“calculating engines”to be used by scientists, in much the same way that specialist supercomputers are today. The particular application he had in mind was the production of error-free mathematical and astronomical tables. Hollerith, on the other hand, made his name building machines to handle an enormous data-processing task: the analysis of the results of the United States’ census.
3) When the first American census took place in 1790, tabulating the date it collected took nine months. As the country’s population grew larger, however, and the number of questions asked in each census increased, a problem of delay gradually emerged. The results of the 1880 census took seven years to compile—making them out of date by the time they were published.
4) This was unsatisfactory because, for example, seats in the House of Representatives were (and are) assigned according to census data。 It became apparent that a new way would have to be found to compile the results of the 1890 census, in order to keep up with rapid demographic changes。 Indeed, without a new approach the 1900 census would already have been under way by the time the 1890 results became available。
5) Hollerith, a former employee of the Census Bureau, had the idea of building a tabulating machine. His first design, patented in 1884, used a long strip of paper into which holes were punched to represent information, The record for each person was to be punched across the strip, which would then be run through the machines. Electrical contacts made through the holes in the strip would drive electro-mechanical counters. In this way the number of records matching particular criteria could be counted.
6) Before long, Hollerith improved this scheme, by using combinations of holes to represent more complex pieces of information. At the same time, he switched from a paper strip to punched cards, By clever wiring of the tabulating machine, it was possible to count the number of cards with particular combinations of attributes.
7) Hollerith also invented a sorting machine, to facilitate the tabulation of subsets of the population. When a card was inserted into the tabulating machines, the counters would be updated accordingly, and the appropriate drawer in the sorting machine would open.
8) When it came to choosing a tabulating machine for the 1890 census, Hollerith’s design was one of three contenders. The other two machines used colour-coded slips of paper and chips of wood to represent information. In a competition between them it took 72 hours to record all the data on to Hollerith’s punched cards, which was not vastly faster than the 144 hours and 100 hours taken by the other two machines.
9) The real advantage of Hollerith’s system became clear, however, when it came to manipulating the stored date and compiling the results. Hollerith’s machines took less than six hours; the other machines took 55 and 44 hours respectively. His design was chosen, and his machines compiled the results of the 1890 census in a mere six weeks, at a saving to the Census Bureau of $5million in staff costs—ten times more than expected.
10) This success enabled Hollerith to expand his Tabulating Machine Company into overseas markets。 In 1911, the company merged with two others, and in 1924 the new firm changed its name to International Business Machine—now better known as IBM。 There is, in other words, a direct line from Hollerith’s tabulating machines to mainframe computers and, in 1981, to the first IBM PC。
11) It is ironic that today’s computer industry has its origins in a date-processing project carried out in 1890 that was completed on time and under budget, Modern computerisation projects, in contrast, tend to have far more in common with Babbage’s ill-fated attempt to build a mechanical computer, which cost a fortune and was eventually abandoned. Perhaps the fact that Hollerith is forgotten, while Babbage is remembered, should not be surprising at all.
Ⅴ。There are 10 incomplete statements, followed by four choices marked A, B, C, and D。 Choose the best answer。 (1 point each, 10 points)
61. Babbage is regarded as the grandfather of computing because .
[A] today’s computers have developed directly from his mechanic computer
[B] his calculating machine was a mechanic one
[C] today’s computers share a lot more with his idea of computing
[D] people were unaware of his work when the first electronic computers were constructed in the 1940s
62。The forgotten father figure refers to Hollerith as 。
[A] a former employee of the American Census Bureau
[B] the founder of IBM
[C] the first designer of a calculating machine
[D] the founder of modern computers
63.“As the country’s population grew larger,… a problem of delay gradually emerged.”Here“a problem of delay”means .
[A] a problem of delay in starting the census
[B] a problem of delay in starting to compile the census results
[C] a problem of delay in bring about the census results
[D] a problem of delay in finding a tabulating machine to compile the census results
64.“…… seats in the House of Representatives were (and are) assigned according to the census data.”This sentence means that .
[A] the seat of the House of Representatives was decided according to the census results
[B] the number of Representatives from each state was decided according to the census results
[C] the number of chairs in the House of Representatives was decided according to the census results
[D] the chairs in to House of Representatives were arranged according to the census results
65。 The primary purpose of Hollerith’s design was 。
[A] to provide a quicker approach to compile the results of the 1890 census
[B] to provide a new approach to reduce the staff costs of the 1890 census
[C] to provide a quicker approach to determine seats in the House of Representatives
[D] to provide a new approach to do mathematical calculation
66. Hollerith’s data-processing project included the following except .
[A] an electronic computer
[B] a tabulating machine
[C] an electro-mechanic counter
[D] a sorting machine
67。 Hollerith’s tabulating machine 。
[A] was completed on time but it cost more than previously estimated
[B] was not completed on time though it cost less than previously estimated
[C] was not completed on time and it cost more than previously estimated
[D] was completed on time and it cost less than previously estimated
68。Hollerith’s tabulating machine was chosen for the 1890 census mainly because of 。
[A] its advantage in recording data
[B] its advantage in saving staff costs
[C] its advantage in processing stored data
[D] its advantage in shape
69。The following statements are true except 。
[A] the first IBM PC was projected in 1981
[B] the results of the 1880 census was not published until 1887
[C] the results of the 1890 census were compiled in six weeks
[D] the first electronic computers were constructed in the 1900s
70. From the passage we can infer that .
[A] Hollerith was not only interested in invention but also in politics
[B] Hollerith was not only good at invention but also at business
[C] Hollerith did a good job not only as an employee of the Census Bureau but also as the manager of his firm
[D] Hollerith was merely luckier than ill-fated Babbage
Ⅵ.There is one underlined part in each of the following sentences, followed by four choices A, B, C and D. Choose the one that is the closest in meaning to the underlined part. (2 points each, 10 points)
71。 Had Babbage never lived, … the rise of the computer would have happened anyway。
[A] Thanks to Babbage we have had the computer.
[B] Without Babbage we would still have had the computer。
[C] Without Babbage we would not have had the computer。
[D] After Babbage’s death we had the computer.
72。 The particular application he had in mind was the production of error-free mathematical and astronomical tables。
[A] to manufacture accurate tables for mathematicians and astronomers
[B] to use mathematical and astronomical tables free from error
[C] to make tables for mathematicians and astronomers who were free from error
[D] to work out accurate tables for use in mathematics and astronomy
73。 Hollerith, on the other hand, made his name building machines…
[A] made himself well known
[B] gave himself a name
[C] gave his machine a name
[D] named himself well
74. In 1911, the company merged with two others,…
[A] the company defeated two others
[B] the company bought over two others
[C] the company combined with two others
[D] the company acquired two others
75。 …which cost a fortune and was eventually abandoned。
[A] which ended in failure with the loss of a good chance
[B] which was given up at last as decided by fate
[C] which resulted in the expense of a lot of money and was given up as an event
[D] which resulted in the expense of a lot of money and was given up in the end
Ⅶ。 Translate the following sentences into Chinese and write your translation on your answer sheet。 (2 points each 10 points)
76。 Babbage intended his elaborate“calculating engines”to be used by scientists,in much the same way specialist supercomputers are today。 (in paragraph 2)
77.His first design, patented in 1884, used a long strip of paper into which holes were punched to represent information. (in paragraph 5)
78. At the same time, he switched from a strip to punched cards. (in paragraph 6)
79。 The other two machines used colour-coded slips of paper and chips of wood to represent information。 (in paragraph 8)
80. This success enabled Hollerith to expand his Tabulating Machine Company into overseas markets. (in paragraph 10)
Ⅷ. Answer the following essay question in English within 80—100words. Write your answer on your answer sheet. (10 points)
What have you learned about Hollerith’s invention from the text?