Ⅰ.Supply the missing paragraph(20 points)
The following passage is incomplete with one body paragraph missing. Study the passage carefully and write the missing paragraph of about 100 words. Make sure that the tone and vocabulary you use are in unity with the passage provided.
I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark, of getting lost, and of not being liked by others. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.
Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a streetlight or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the corner of my eye, I saw that the curtains seemed to move when there was no breeze. A tiny crack in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight, and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel so helpless, too. My heart would pound, and I would lie very still so that the “enemy” wouldn't discover me.
Perhaps one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Second, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn't like me because I was too fat or wore braces. I tried to wear the “right” clothes and even had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing the “flats” instead of saddle shoes to school. Being popular was so important to me then, and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one.
One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is being able to recognize and outgrow our fears. I've learned that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I'm lost, and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children helps us to cope with our lives as adults.
Ⅱ。Write an outline (20 points)
Read the following passage carefully and compose a “sentence outline” for it。
The Changing Workweek
In the early 1900s in the U.S.A., workers in large industries worked long days and long weeks. It was not uncommon for workers in the meat-packing companies of Chicago, for example, to work twelve to fourteen hours, for six or seven days a week. As unions started exerting their influence, however, the working conditions of American workers began improving, and the workweek was gradually shortened. Today, workers have workweek options that were unheard of earlier in the last century.
The five-day workweek has become commonplace in American industries. However, the four-day workweek is becoming even more popular. Many workers prefer four ten-hour days. This gives them longer working days, but it also gives them three-day weekends, an unheard-of luxury even twenty years ago. Management isn't complaining since the same amount of work gets accomplished, and in some cases a plant can be totally shut down on the fifth day, saving the company thousands of dollars in utilities.
Another change in the workweek is the variable hours option。 While American workers have traditionally worked either day or night shifts, some companies are allowing workers to set their own hours within the workweek。 Flexible schedules are becoming more common in metropolitan areas with commuter-time traffic problems and in industries that are open around the clock。 The advantage to the workers is that they can plan their hours around the days of their families。 For example, a husband who takes each afternoon off could babysit the children while his wife works。 The variable hours schedule also motivates workers because the company is letting them control their own time。
A third change in the workweek over the past twenty years is the use of overtime. While most workers do not have to work beyond a forty-hour week, many companies will pay them time and a half to do so. Although this is more expensive for the company, it is still cheaper than having to hire additional workers and providing benefits. On traditional nonworking days such as holidays, workers are often paid double-time or more to work. Overtime pay allows companies to meet their production needs without exploiting the workers. It allows workers to make extra money at a higher rate than they normally work for. Although overtime work often represents a return to longer working days and weeks, it is done on a voluntary basis and is usually negotiated willingly by the workers.
What does the future hold for American workers? As modern technology turns more and more work to machines, the typical workweek may continue to shrink. Some companies have already gone to the thirty-five-hour week, and in the 21st century, the thirty-five-hour week may be standard. Within twenty years, the most common workweek may be a four-day, thirty-two-hour workweek. The great advantage to shorter workweeks is that workers have more time off to themselves. However, given the financial demands upon American families in the future, it may also become common for workers to hold down two full-time jobs at one time. Given the American work ethic, most workers will probably fill their free time with more work instead of more leisure.
Ⅲ。Compose an essay(60 points)
Many technological innovations have been “double-edged swords” with positive and negative effects on society at large. The automobile is one of such innovations. What do you think is the overall impact of automobiles on society? Write an expository essay (about 300 words) expressing your views on it.