I. Supply the missing paragraph (20 points)
The following passage is incomplete with one body paragraph missing。 Study the passage carefully and write the missing paragraph in about 100 words。 Make sure that your tone and diction are in unity with the passage provided。
Attaining Success in College
Succeeding in college is not only important to getting and education, but also crucial in this day and age to success in the work place. To me, the three most important things for attaining a successful college experience are having smart classroom conduct, taking advantage of campus resources, and making college the first priority.
Making good use of campus resources is also of great importance to college success。 The school library has many resources for the growth of the students’ mind。 With computers and copy-machines for individual use, computer labs and writing labs are there not just for learning purposes but also for actual help with writing papers。 The “office hours” will help the students build a close relationship with their professors and give them access to the professors’ mind。 From the professors the students can acquire possible extra information that may put them ahead of their study。 All these resources are free, since they are funded by student tuitions。 So taking good advantage of the resources can only make the students’ education more attainable。
Finally, any students who want to assure success must establish school as the top priority. Personally I have watched some students slowly loosen up; I have seen a pattern of partying and a lack of motivation. Many of the freshmen have no idea why they are in college, and their “eyes” often tell it all. This world is so rich in distractions that it is hard to keep a strong focus, especially if one is just starting his or her academic career. It is said that the first semester is often the most “unsuccessful” one. This certainly rings true for me. I made mistakes in this regard and eventually learned that, to achieve success, school must always be placed above other things.
In my college experience, I have observed and learned how to achieve success。 I wish someone had told me earlier the importance of having that smart classroom conduct, of fully utilizing the school resources, and of making college my top priority。 Then, my college beginnings would not have been so rocky and tough。
II. Write an outline (20 points)
Read the following passage carefully and compose a “topic outline” for it。
Smell, as a means of nonverbal communication, is important. Odor communicates not only when we are face to face with another person, but also when the other person is not present. People from different cultures may have different attitudes toward body odors.
Most people in the West respond negatively to what they consider bad odors such as body odor, breath odor, or clothes that emit unpleasant smells such as sweat. They work hard to cover up their body odor and view those with body odor as dirty and unsanitary. However, people usually are not comfortable in discussing the topic, and generally will not tell another that his or her body odor is offensive. They will simply avoid being close to the person and will end the conversation as quickly as possible.
Other cultures have quite different concepts of natural odors; they consider them as normal and believe that it is an act of friendship to “breathe the breath” of the person with whom they converse and to feel their presence by smelling。 For example, Arabs don’t seem to feel comfortable unless they can smell each other。 When Arabs talk, they virtually envelop each other in their breath。 Smelling the natural body odors of one’s friend is desirable; denying him or her this privilege is to act ashamedly。 In other cultures smell also plays an important role。 In Japan, young girls will often play a game involving the placing of five fragrances in tiny boxes。 The girl who identifies the most aromas wins the game。 In Bali, Indonesia, when lovers greet one another, they often breathe deeply in a kind of friendly sniffing。 It is not uncommon for young lovers in the Philippines to trade small pieces of clothing on parting so that the smell of the other person will evoke their affection for each other。
Not knowing cultural variations in attitude toward smell can create uncertainty and even ill feeling。 For example, a medical doctor from Saudi Arabia once worked in a hospital in the southern United States。 Problems arose when patients refused to have the Saudi doctor examine them。 Interviews with patients revealed two problems: He “smelled bad” and he breathed on the patients。 The doctor’s training had apparently failed to include the difference between Arabic and American attitudes and practices relating to smell。 Clearly, encounters between people with such widely differing attitudes could lead to serious miscommunication。 To maintain harmonious intercultural business relationships, one should remember these diverse attitudes toward smell。
III. Compose an essay (60 points)
In China, old people are usually taken care of by their family members, but now some people send their aging parents to nursing homes。 What is your opinion on this? Write a 300-word expository essay stating your views。